English Teaching, KATE Journal, English education, English learning, journal

Volume 76 Number 3 Autumn 2021

Volume 75, Number 4

Volume 76 Number 3 Autumn 2021

ISSN 1017-7108 (Print) / ISSN 2671-9312 (Online)

English Teaching is an open access journal published by the Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE). All articles published by KATE are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit and adapt the work, provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.

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    Table of Contents
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    Testing in Social, Cultural, and Political Contexts [Full-Text Available]
    Gwan-Hyeok Im
    (Yonsei University) / *corresponding author, email: gwan.im@queensu.ca

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 3-33
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.3
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] Despite the popularity of the TOEIC in the Korean society for over 30 years, few studies have investigated the understanding and usage of TOEIC scores in the Korean context. This research gap needs to be filled to provide test users with useful information in the Korean context. Using an argument-based approach to validation, this study investigates the meanings and uses of the TOEIC scores in the Korean context, based on analyses of records publicly available at the YBM website (i.e., TOEIC administrator in Korea). One hundred ninety-four documents published between 2012 and 2017 were collected from the website and the data were analyzed by combining the content and the context analyses. Findings reveal that contextual factors affect the understanding and usage of scores by different TOEIC stakeholders. The document data reveal unintended meanings and uses of the scores.

    [KEY WORDS] YBM, TOEIC, an argument-based approach, document analysis, test validity and validation
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    Effects of E-Books and Printed Books on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension and Grammatical Knowledge [Full-Text Available]
    Jihyeon Park
    (Gyeongsang National University) / Juhee Lee* (Gyeongsang National University) / *corresponding author, email: juheelee.carpediem@gmail.com

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 35-61
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.35
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] In today’s digital era, tablets are gaining popularity as reading devices. However, few studies have compared reading e-books on tablets with reading printed books and regular classroom instruction for language learning. To evaluate the role of tablets in reading and analyze the possibilities, the current study examined 97 elementary school students learning English as a foreign language in South Korea. These students were taught English once or twice a week for 11 weeks based on extensive reading using tablets (n = 42), printed books (n = 32), or regular textbook-based instruction as control (n = 23). The results indicate that literal level reading comprehension was improved the largest in the tablet group compared with the other groups. By contrast, improvements in inferential reading comprehension and grammatical knowledge were greater in those reading printed books than in the tablet group. The findings suggest that the print medium was superior for deep reading and digital texts were better for quick and shallow learning.

    [KEY WORDS] extensive reading, tablets, e-books, printed books, literal reading comprehension, inferential reading comprehension, grammatical knowledge
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    Claims of Entitlements in Elementary EFL Co-teaching [Full-Text Available]
    Josephine Mijin Lee
    (Ewha Womans University) / *corresponding author, email: leejosephine@ewha.ac.kr

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 63-84
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.63
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] This study examined teachers’ claims of entitlement in collaborative teaching sequences where the non-leading teacher enters into the domain of another teacher’s ongoing instructional business. The data involves video recordings of second-grade elementary Korean and American teachers co-teaching math and science lessons. The analysis reveals that directives were prevalent in teacher-teacher communication, and unilaterally involved the Korean teacher making corrective remarks of American teacher’s instructions or entering to take control of classroom management. The directives were also formulated as declarative interrogatives, proposals, and imperatives, which implied the Korean teacher’s high entitlement. Also when the Korean teacher’s directive was not met with immediate compliance, it escalated into a more demanding imperative. These findings reveal the differential institutional status and power balance between the two teachers and demonstrate the analytical gains of applying conversation analysis to co-teaching interactional data. Potential implications for teacher training are discussed in light of collegiality and complementary collaborative teaching.

    [KEY WORDS] entitlements, co-teaching, asymmetry, elementary, classroom interaction
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    A Gyopo English Teacher’s Professional Identity in an EFL Context [Full-Text Available]
    Jung Won Lee
    (Sookmyung Women’s University) / Myonghee Kim* (Sookmyung Women’s University) / *corresponding author, email:
     kimm@sookmyung.ac.kr

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 85-113
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.85
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] There is a growing research interest in language teachers’ professional identity. Nevertheless, unlike studies involving the identity of native and non-native English-speaking teachers, few studies analyzed Gyopo English teachers’ identity despite a sizeable body of Gyopo teachers in the Korean educational context. Using post-structural perspectives of identity, this case study analyzed the identities of a Gyopo instructor as an English teacher and how such identities were reflected in classroom practice. Data were collected through interviews, classroom observations, and self-reflective reports written by the participant. Findings reveal that the participant constructed multiple professional identities as a teacher with previous language learning experiences, a bridge-builder, a multitasker, and a teacher who is not a native English speaker but an American, and a replaceable person. While experiencing identity conflicts, she constantly negotiated and renegotiated her multiple, contradictory identities to position herself more favorably. Based on these findings, the present study offers pedagogical suggestions.

    [KEY WORDS] Gyopo teacher, language teacher identity, teacher professional identity
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    ‘Butter Balla Here!’: The Functions of Humor in Primary English Classrooms in Korea [Full-Text Available]
    Sol Kim
    (Hyohaeng Elementary School) / *corresponding author, email: solwithu@gmail.com

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 115-137
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.115
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] The use of humor has been a controversial research topic in language classrooms. Humor is pervasive; however, the functions of humor in primary English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms is under-investigated. To analyze the distinct features of humor, this study explores the specific functions of humor in primary English teaching classrooms in South Korea. The data set included thirty 40-minute English lessons videotaped in 2019 and semi-structured interviews with three teachers. Data were analyzed by identifying humor sequences, transcribing these classroom sessions and interviews, coding recurrent themes, and sorting representative excerpts. As a result, psychological, social, and behavioral functions of humor were conceptualized. The findings showed that humor (i) mitigated learners’ anxiety and aroused interest in language learning, (ii) reinforced constructive teacher-learner relationships and enabled camaraderie between learners, and (iii) regulated student behavior or rationalized learners’ listening incomprehension. Pedagogical implications are also discussed regarding ways to use and respond to humor in language classrooms.

    [KEY WORDS] humor, relieving stress, establishing relationships, exerting influence without losing face, function, classroom discourse, EFL
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    The Role of Achievement Standards in 2022 National English Curriculum [Full-Text Available]
    Byeong-Cheon Lee
    ( Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation) / *corresponding author, email: bclee@kice.re.kr

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 139-158
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.139
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] This study investigates some of the implications for developing Achievement Standards (ASs) in 2022 national English curriculum by analyzing the perception of elementary and middle school teachers on the role of ASs in the 2015 national English curriculum. The major research areas were categorized into clarity, practical usability, and AS level and amount in the national English curriculum. Based on a survey of both descriptive and inferential statistics, the results of the current study demonstrated group differences in specific subtopic questions. Teachers did not have positive perceptions regarding practical application and clarity, while they exhibited positive perceptions regarding the level and the amount of ASs. The survey also suggested alternative ways to improve clarity and practical application of ASs by strengthening the linkage between elements in the curriculum such as assessment methods and instructions and supplementary comments of Ass beyond clear presentation of the ASs.

    [KEY WORDS] applicability of achievement standard, usability, clarity, level and amount of achievement standard, 2015 national curriculum, English curriculum
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    Developing L2 Identity Through the Perezhivanie of Learning: A Case Study of Two Students in Jeju Island [Full-Text Available]
    Myung-Hye Huh
    (Korea University) / Mi-Sun Kim (Cheju Halla University) / *corresponding author, email: myunghuh@korea.ac.kr

    English Teaching, Vol. 76, Number 3, Autumn 2021, pp. 159-180
    DOI: 10.15858/engtea.76.3.202109.159
    © 2021 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스

    [ABSTRACT] In this study, using the concept of perezhivanie as an analytical tool, we were trying out new ways to investigate L2 identity taking the peripheral educational context into account. We examined how two graduates from non-academic high schools perceived their peripheral school situation through their perezhivanie, and described how this situation affected the individual trajectories of L2 identity development as well. When two students immersed themselves in marginalized classroom contexts, they have experienced academic stigma in the context of classroom community. Moreover, they all experienced emotional conflicts related to English learning. Besides, they struggled over deficit remedial L2 identity, entailing identity tensions. As they attempted to reconcile the contradictions between themselves and their circumstances, their perezhivanie made their social situation of development differently. Depending on how the contradiction was being emotionally experienced through the prism of each student’s perezhivanie, the same contradiction had different meanings, led to different reactions, and had differing impacts on their L2 identity.

    [KEY WORDS] Vygotsky, perezhivanie, cognitive–emotional dialectic, L2 identity, marginalization, Jeju

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