English Teaching, KATE Journal, English education, English learning, journal

Volume 74 Number 4 Winter 2019

Written By: admin - Dec• 31•19
Volume 72, Number 2

Volume 74 Number 4 Winter 2019

ISSN 1017-7108 (Print) / ISSN 2671-9312 (Online)

English Teaching is an open access journal published by the Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE). All articles published by KATE are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit and adapt the work, provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.

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    Table of Contents
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      A Comparative Analysis of EFL Students’ Needs and Evaluation of English Curriculum: A Case Study from Korea [Full-Text Available]
      Haerim Hwang (University of Hawaii) / Hyunwoo Kim* (Yonsei University) / *corresponding author, email: hyunwoo2@yonsei.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 3-28
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.3
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스
      [FUNDING INFORMATION] This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2019S1A6A3A01102884).


      [ABSTRACT] Given the important status of students as major stakeholders of the National English Curriculum, this study investigated specific needs of curriculum-takers for an English curriculum and compared the results with analyses of curriculum evaluation from curriculum-completers. We implemented a needs assessment survey targeting 68 elementary school students (current curriculum-takers) and an evaluation survey targeting 27 high school students (curriculum-completers) in Korean EFL context. Results showed similarities between students’ needs and evaluation in terms of the ideal time for starting English education and time allotments. However, we found significant gaps between the two groups in several domains related to their specific goals of learning English. While the current curriculum-takers showed a high motivation to learn English for both instrumental purposes and integrative purposes, the curriculum-completers were strongly biased toward instrumental purposes. Our findings provide useful insight into curriculum development and improvement for seeking educational effectiveness in EFL settings. This study also provides helpful resources for conducting needs and evaluation analyses.
      [KEY WORDS] needs analysis, evaluation, English curriculum, Korean EFL context
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      Relative Effects of Direct Focused and Unfocused WCF on the Accuracy Development of Two Language Forms [Full-Text Available]
      Ji Hyun Kim* (Keimyung University) / *corresponding author, email: jhk2024@kmu.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 29-50
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.29
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] This article reports on a classroom-based study that examined the effects of direct focused and unfocused written corrective feedback (WCF) on the accuracy development of the past hypothetical conditional (e.g., If I had had money, I would have bought a new computer.) and the indefinite article (a/an). The study employed a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest design with two feedback treatment sessions. Six intermediate classes, a total of 108 college freshmen at a university in Korea and two native English speaking instructors, participated in the study. The classes were assigned into a focused WCF group, an unfocused WCF group, and a control group. A text-reconstruction task was used as a writing material and a test instrument. The results revealed that both focused and unfocused WCF groups outperformed the control group in the accuracy gains of both target forms. When the relative effects of two types of feedback were considered, there was no difference in the contribution focused and unfocused WCF made for the accuracy improvement of the hypothetical conditional. However, focused WCF was more beneficial than unfocused WCF for the development of the indefinite article.
      [KEY WORDS] focused/unfocused written corrective feedback (WCF), L2 accuracy, different language forms
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      A Theoretical Analysis of How Critical Literacy May Support the Progressive Goals of the Korean National Curriculum [Full-Text Available]
      Rod Pederson* (Incheon National University) / *corresponding author, email: docrod88@hotmail.com
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 51-74
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.51
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] Many Korean scholars have praised progressive initiatives in the current Korean National Curriculum (KNC) and Korean National English Curriculum (KNEC), although they also state that the actual teaching practices have changed little. With each new iteration of the KNC it is apparent that the Korean Ministry of Education (MOE) is encouraging a pedagogical agenda that reflects the necessities of situated learning and ‘student-centered’ approaches to teaching and learning. The MOE’s inclusion of ‘micro-teaching’ in tertiary teacher training program reviews also illustrates its increasingly active measures to affect educational change in Korea. Concomitant with the recent MOE initiatives, there has been a growing interest in practices of critical literacy/pedagogy in English education over the past 15 years in Korea. The purpose of critical literacy is to educate students to be knowledgeable, creative, and active participants in a democracy for the purposes of increasing social justice and agency. Thus, it becomes possible, and desirable, to undertake a theoretical analysis of the language and intent between the KNC/ KNEC and theories of critical literacy. This paper analyzes the language ant intent of the KNC and KNEC to determine the extent to which they reflect the theories and pedagogies of critical literacy. Results of this analysis indicate that that critical literacy supports the goals of the curricula and suggest that it should be included in tertiary teacher education programs.
      [KEY WORDS] Korean National Curriculum, Korean National English Curriculum, critical literacy, neoliberalism, social reproduction
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      Korean EFL Learners’ Refusals to Requests and Their Perceptions [Full-Text Available]
      Ye Lin Park (Seoul National University) / Sun-Young Oh* (Seoul National University)/ *corresponding author, email: sunoh@snu.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 75-103
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.75
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] The act of refusal takes place in everyday lives, but it has been discussed to be a difficult speech act for nonnative speakers. This study seeks to investigate Korean EFL learners’ refusals in extended discourse along with their pragmatic perceptions. Sixteen college students were engaged in oral role-plays with two native English speakers and instructed to refuse the interlocutor’s request. The refusal performances were analyzed using conversation analysis framework with respect to the interlocutors’ different powers and the learners’ proficiency levels. Learners also participated in retrospective verbal reports. Findings depict different verbal and nonverbal features illustrating learners’ sensitivity towards higher status and their different linguistic abilities. Furthermore, their verbal reports revealed that despite their pragmatic awareness, learners were not fully equipped with appropriate L2 pragmatic knowledge.
      [KEY WORDS] refusal, speech act, pragmatic competence, pragmatic awareness, interlanguage pragmatics, conversation analysis, role-play
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      The Analysis of Writing Tasks in High School English Textbooks: A Process-Genre Based Approach [Full-Text Available]
      Eon-sung Na (Baekseok Middle School) / Hye-won Lee* (Cambridge Assessment English) / *corresponding author, email: lee.h@cambridgeenglish.org
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 105-129
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.105
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] The present study examined how writing tasks in high school English textbooks under the revised national curriculum reflected the key writing elements (process, genre, and context) of process-genre based approach. Concerning the latter, the focus was narrowed to audience since it was relatively neglected in writing instruction compared with other contextual factors. For this study, we analyzed 335 writing tasks in ten English textbooks for 1st- and 2nd-year high school students. Results showed that writing tasks largely incorporated the process-genre based approach. However, pre-writing activities mostly scaffolded the organization of ideas, rather than generated them. In the post-writing phase, editing was not targeted in some writing tasks. Both the diversity of genres/subgenres and genre awareness activities were also lacking. In addition, few writing tasks targeted the development of audience awareness through explicit activities. These findings provide pedagogical implications for writing task and curriculum development for material writers, curriculum designers, and practitioners.
      [KEY WORDS] process-genre based approach, genre, process, context, audience, writing task, writing sections, pre-writing, post-writing
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      Korean EFL Learners’ L2 Mental Lexicon: Vocabulary Size and Word Association Types [Full-Text Available]
      Xinnian Lu (University of Seoul) / Jayeon Lim* (University of Seoul) / *corresponding author, email: limjy@uos.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 131-151
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.131
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] This paper examined factors affecting Korean EFL learners’ word association types in their L2 mental lexicon. Specifically, vocabulary size of the learners was examined to see if it had any significant relationship with word association types. To this end, experiment procedures that included vocabulary size test and the lexical decision task as well as the word association task were conducted on 40 Korean EFL learners. Reaction time and accuracy of responding to word associations in the lexical decision task were measured. Subsequently, a correlation analysis was conducted with their vocabulary size. Additionally, learners’ word association types were analyzed based on the results of word association task. The results showed that Korean EFL learners’ vocabulary size had significant correlations with their accuracy in identifying syntagmatic and paradigmatic associations, but not in the phonological association. However, their accuracy was not correlated with reaction times. The results indicate that L2 learners’ mental lexicon is partially dependent on their vocabulary size of the target language, and it is variable depending on word association types.
      [KEY WORDS] mental lexicon, vocabulary size, word association, Korean EFL learners
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      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 153-177
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.153
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스
      [FUNDING INFORMATION] The ICNALE SD project is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant (17H02360).


      [ABSTRACT] This paper first surveys three kinds of learner interview corpora (LINDSEI, NICT-JLE Corpus, and Trinity Lancaster Corpus), paying particular attention to their interview structures. Then, it explains the principles and features of the ICNALE Spoken Dialogue (ICNALE SD), which includes 425 videos and approximately 1.6-million-word transcripts of the L2 English interviews with 405 learners from ten regions in Asia and twenty native speakers. The ICNALE SD is one of the largest learner interview corpora and practically the sole dataset for the analysis of dialogue speeches by various Asian learners. As a case study based on the ICNALE SD, the author sought to find out how fluently learners in different regions speak in the interviews, which words they characteristically use, and which relationship is observed among them.
      [KEY WORDS]  learner corpus, Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis (CIA), dialogue, fluency, vocabulary use
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      The Perceptions of Students and Teachers on the Practice of Assessment in Extensive Reading [Full-Text Available]
      Misook Kim* (Kyung Hee University) / *corresponding author, email: michellems@khu.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 179-203
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.179


      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스
      [ABSTRACT] This paper examined the use of assessment techniques in extensive reading and students’ and teachers’ perceptions on the practice of extensive reading. A total of 232 university students who were placed at different proficiency levels of classes and 13 professors participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. In-depth interviews were carried out with a selected number of student and professor volunteers. Data were analyzed using t-tests to compare two different groups of students. Results revealed that writing short answers and assessments involving discussion with peers and professor were utilized more at the basic level, but students at the basic level reported discussion with peers and professor as the most effective assessment technique. In contrast, at the intermediate level, multiple-choice questions and T/F statements were used more as assessments, but students at the intermediate level reported that writing one’s opinion on themes was the most effective technique. Both groups believed that reading graded readers is helpful in improving reading skills and vocabulary as well as understanding other cultures. Results further revealed that professors preferred to use writing short-answer questions and in-class discussion as assessments on graded readers; however, they responded that a writing task was the most adequate type of assessment. In addition, they reported that graded readers are helpful in improving all language skills and favored the use of graded readers as part of the language program.
      [KEY WORDS] extensive reading, graded readers, assessment, extrinsic motivation, affective domain
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      Attitudes Towards English Language Learning Apps from Korean and Chinese EFL Students [Full-Text Available]
      Jing Cheng (Dankook University) / Hyun-Ju Kim* (Dankook University) / *corresponding author, email: hyunjukim@dankook.ac.kr
      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 205-224
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.205
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] The purpose of study was to investigate university students’ attitudes towards English language learning apps and examine whether there is any significant difference in their attitudes depending on their personal variables such as their gender, major, grade, nationality, and so on. This study also explored students’ perceptions of English language learning apps that they have used. Participants were college students living in Korea and China. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an interview. Results showed that both Korean and Chinese students generally held positive attitudes towards English language learning apps, although Chinese students showed more positive attitudes than Koreans. The main reasons that they liked to use English language learning apps were their convenience, ubiquity, and rich resources. On the other hands, it was revealed that the lack of communication and feedback was the main problem of using such apps. Both Korean and Chinese students stated that it was an effective way to use English language learning apps to practice pronunciation, vocabulary, listening, and reading skills. Findings of this research suggest that English language learning apps should be developed to inspire users/students’ learning interest and foster learner autonomy.
      [KEY WORDS] English language learning apps, Korean and Chinese students, effectiveness, attitudes, interest, autonomy
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      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 225-248
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.225
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] This case study aimed to examine ways Korean university students in an English critical reading class participated in educational action projects. For this purpose, the reading class was designed to enhance students’ critical thinking skills and global citizenship as readers. Eighteen students in the class were taught by the teacher how to read texts in English using a critical perspective. The reading class was managed in a flexible mode with comprehension check-ups, critical dialoguing, and student-initiated action. Students were invited to connect what they discussed to action outcomes as a group project. Students in groups presented their understanding of readings and what they discussed in critical dialogues of the readings. They then reported what they did outside the classroom to foster themselves as truly active citizens in their local circumstances. Their group reports and project products were collected and analyzed into themes using qualitative methods. It was revealed that critical dialogue activities could help students come up with action-provoking questions on the readings, bring about a variety of action outcomes resulting from collaborations in groups, and help students become more active readers and citizens. Educational implications are also discussed.
      [KEY WORDS] critical reading, dialogue, action outcomes, active citizens
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      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 249-274
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.249
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스


      [ABSTRACT] The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of English learning motivation that changed in high school students from their elementary to junior high and senior high schools from a retrospective perspective. It further examined factors affecting motivation, demotivation, and remotivation. Participants charted progressions and regressions of their English learning motivation. They then took part in semi-structured interviews. Results of the study revealed that the students had the highest motivation in their elementary school years. They showed gradual declines as learning time progressed, showing the lowest motivation in their high school years. Motivation factors included teaching methods, curiosity and interest in English classes, and incentives and praise for learning achievements, while textbooks, curriculum, learning failure experiences, and pressure on grades were demotivating factors. Improvements in test scores and English study skills, experiences of success in English learning, and awareness of the importance of learning English remotivated these students. Identified motivation, demotivation, and remotivation factors differed depending on students’ English proficiency.
      [KEY WORDS] L2 motivational changes, motivation, demotivation, remotivation, retrospective perspective
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      English Teaching, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter 2019, pp. 271-293
      DOI: 10.15858/engtea.74.4.201912.271
      © 2019 The Korea Association of Teachers of English (KATE) / Open Access / 크리에이티브 커먼즈 라이선스
      [FUNDING INFORMATION] This work was supported by Seoul Theological University.


      [ABSTRACT] This study focused on challenges faced by early childhood English teachers in Korea against the backdrop of the local rise of English education for young learners. A mixed-method was used to collect data, including open-ended survey questionnaires and interviews. Six teachers from 250 early childhood English teachers were selected for this study based on the length of teaching experience. A number of challenges emerged from the analysis of the survey, including classroom management, mixed-level class, motivation, teaching methodology, parents involvement, restrained English education in the context of Korea, the teacher’s level of English, lack of assessment and materials which fit early childhood language learners, and balancing between interest and learning. Nine distinct themes were found based on calculated frequency. They were cross-tabulated by two groups of teachers depending on whether teachers had less or more than three years of teaching experience. Results showed challenges and difficulties faced by teachers with lengthy teaching experience. Findings of this study suggest a way to build teacher education programs to support the challenges identified by teachers.
      [KEY WORDS] early childhood English teacher, length of teaching experience, teaching challenges

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